History Of The Internet - Research By NiiCa

Some Cyber scholars claim The InterNET must have it's origin from 1957 after the then USSR(Soviet Union) launched their first artificial earth satellite called "Sputnik". The USA(United States) in response, formed the Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA) within the US Department Of Defense(DoD) to establish a comparable lead in science and technology both usable and applicable to the US military.

Other Cyber scholars also claim that The InterNET began at the height of the cold war in the very early 1960's. The question that lead to the birth of the InterNET was "How could US authorities talk to each other in case of a nuclear attack by the Soviets?" This question lead the US military think tanks, American people, businesses and Corporations to figure out a common solution to this question. In the early 1960's the network configuration was a Point-To-Point protocol like a Ring Network where the computers are connected in series with the computer ahead depending on the one behind therefore if one node(computer) on the network breaks down, all nodes connected to the network will be affected. Because of this problem with networks of the 1960's, one of the think tanks on the project called Paul Baran conceived the idea of a new kind of network technology; a network called Packet-switching(PS) network, a network like a spider's web. A network protocol that could allow information to find its own path to share information throughout the network if one or more nodes break down. Paul Baran's Cold War vision later became the brain behind the creation of a small network(Wide Area Network - WAN) connecting computers at four university campuses around the United States which grew up to be the Super Information Highway with millions of nodes on millions of networks around the globe.

Chronological Growth Of The InterNET - (also known as "the web")
1962 - Paul Baran from RAND Corporation began research into Distributed Communications Networks for US military command and control posts. Introduction of Packet-Switching (PS) Networks with no single outage point.

1965 -Advanced Research Projects Agency sponsored the study and research into "Co-operative Network Of Time-Sharing Computers". TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab and Q-32 at System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif. were directly linked without Packet Switches.

1967 - Delegates gathered at a symposium for the Association For Computing Machinery in Galinberg, Tennessee, USA to discuss the first plans for ARPANET and Network Operating Principles. Plans were also presented for a Packet-Switching Network. The National Physical Laboratory(NPL) in Middlesex, England developed the NPL Data Network under D. W. Davies.

1968 - Packet Switching Network was presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA)

1969 - APRANET commissioned the US Department Of Defense to research into Networking. Researchers at four US University campuses created the first hosts of the ARPANET, connecting the first node at UCLA's Network Measurements Center - code named [SDS SIGMA 7:SEX] and soon after at [Legend=Function - system:os] followed by Stanford Research Institute (SRI) [NIC - SDS940/Genie], then UC Santa Barbara [Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics] - IBM 360/75:OS/MVT and then University Of Utah [Graphics (Hidden Line Removal)] - DEC PDP-10:Tenex]. Also the use of Information Message Processors(IMP) - Honeywell 516 mini computer with 12 k of memory was developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN). The First Request For Comment (RFC): "Host Software by Steve Croker was also developed (one of the fundamentals of ISP programming today). University of Michigan, Michigan State and Wayne States Universities established X.25-based Merit Network for students, faculties and alumni
The APRANET was success from the very beginning. Although originally designed to allow scientists and students to share data and Remote Access to Computers, e-Mail quickly became and still is the most popular Network Application. The APRANET became a high-speed digital Post Office as people used it to collaborate and discuss research projects of various interests and topics. This extended to electronic conferencing.

1970 - ARPANET hosts started using Network Control Protocol(NCP) and at University of Hawaii the ALOHNET was developed by Norman Abrahamson but got connected to APRANET in 1972.

1971 - From 15 nodes the APRANET grew to 23 hosts connecting universities and government resources and establishments across the United States, such as, UC Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara, U of Utah, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), RAND, SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Laboratory, Stanford U, UIU(Ca), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames and the list goes on...Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented the almighty e-Mail program to send messages across a distributed network. The original program was derived from two others: an Intra-Machine eMail program(SNDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program(CPYNET).

1972 - An International conference on Computer Communications with demonstration by APRANET between fourty computers and the Terminal Interface Processor(TIP) organized by Bob Khan where the Internetworking Working Group was created to establish standards to govern the growing network. Vinton Cerf was elected the chairman of the Internetworking Group(INWG) who was later named the "Father Of The InterNET". At the same time Telnet specification(RFC 318) was established.

1973 - The APRANET went international with connections to University College Of London(England) and Royal Radar Establishment of Norway. Bob Metcalfe Ph.D. outlined his idea of Ethernet in his thesis at Harvard University. Vinton Cerf sketched out a gateway architecture in March on the back of an envelop in a hotel lobby in San Francisco. Cerf and Khan presented the basic InetNET ideas at the InterNetWorking Group(INWG) at University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K. The File Transfer specifications (RFC 454) was created.

1974 - The general public got its first vague hint about how networked computers can be used in the commercial version after the APRANET goes online. The ARPANET started to deviate from its original military/research roots and values. Bolt, Beranek & Newman Inc.(BBN) opened Telnet the very first public/commercial version of the APRANET Packet Switching service. Vinton Cerf and Bob Khan published "A Protocol for Packet Networking Intercommunication" which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program(TCP).[IEEE Tans Comm]

1975 - Operational management of the InterNET was transferred to DCA currently Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).

1976 - Queen Elizabeth II of the U.K. went online and sent her first Royal eMail message. The oldest e-Mail dates as far back as 1971 found in print, but was most submitted in 1976.

1977 - THEORYNET created by Larry Landweber at U of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science using locally developed e-Mail system and TELENET for access to server. The mail specification (RFC 733) was created. Tyshare also launched Tymnet and APRANET first demonstrated Packet/Radio Net/SATNET operation of Internet Protocols with BBN supplied gateways.

1978 - [Nothing much has being recorded on the NET but NiiCa Labs. is still researching.]

1979 - Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis at Duke University with friend Steve Bellovin at U of North Carolina establish the first USENET newsgroups between Duke U and U of NC. Users from all over the world joined in these discussion groups to talk about the NET , politics, religion, and millions of other subjects and topics. All original groups were under net.* hierarchy. Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with DARPA funding. Most communications took place between mobile vans using APPANET connection via Stanford Research Institute.

1980 - [Nothing much has being recorded on the NET but NiiCa Labs. is still researching.]

1981 - APRANET had 213 hosts and about one new host was added approximately every 20 days. BITNET, the "Because It's Time NETWork" was started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York, with the first connection to Yale University that provided electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information as well as file transfers. CSNET(Computer Science NETwork) built by a collaboration of computer scientists and U. of Delaware, Perdue U, U of Wisconsin, RAND Corporation, BBN through seed money granted by NSF to provide networking services (specially email) to university scientist with no access to APRANET. SCNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network. Minitel (Teletel) deployed across France by France Telecom.

1982 - Bob Khan and Vinton Cerf created TCP/IP, the common language for all InterNET computers and was approved by the Department Of Defense as a suitable standard. For the first time the loose connection of networks which made up the APRANET was looked at as the "InterNET", and the InterNET as we know it today was born. The mid-80's boom in the Personal Computer and super-minicomputer industries. The combination of inexpensive desktop machines and powerful, network-ready servers allows many companies to join the InterNET for the first time. Corporations began to use the InterNET to communicate with each other and with their clients or customers. EUNET (European UNIX Network) was created by EUUG to provide email and USENET services. The Original connections between Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and U.K. The External Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification was used for gateways between networks.

1983 -NCP was cutover to TCP/IP and Name Server developed by U of Wisconsin no longer required to know the exact path to other systems. Desktop workstations came into being, many with Berkeley UNIX which included TCP/IP networking software.

1984 - Domain Name Servers were introduced and about 1000 hosts. JUNET(Japan Unix Network) was established using UUCP.JANET(Joint Academic Network) was established in U.K. using Colour Books protocols.

1985 -The last Canadian university was connected to BITNET in an effort to create a coast-to-coast connectivity.

1986 - Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio created the first "FreeNET" Society for Public Access Computing. NSFNET created a backbone speed of 56bps.Network News Transfer Protocol(NNTP) designed to enhance performance over TCP/IP. Mail Exchanger(MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allowed nonIP network hosts to have domain addresses.

1987 - The number of InterNET hosts had exceeded 10,000 hosts and the "Request For Comments" reference guide was approved by APRANET. 1000 RFC.

1988 - The InterNET was an essential tools for communications, however it also begins to create concern about privacy and security in the digital world. News words such as "Hacker, Hacking" and "Electronic Break-In" were created. These news worries were dramatically demonstrated on Nov. 1'st 1988 when a malicious program called the "Internet Worm" temporarily disabled approximately 6,000 of the 60,000 InterNET host. The Computer Emergency Response Team was formed to address security concerns raised by the "Internet Worm of '88". InterNET Relay Chat (IRC) was developed by Jarkko Oikarinen from Finland. The first Canadian regional joined NSFNET as well as countries like Denmark, Finland, Iceland Norway and Sweden.

1989 - RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeans) was formed by European Service Provider to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow the operation of the Pan-American IP Network. First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the InterNET: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative (CNRI) and CompuServe through Ohio State U. The AARNET - Australian Academic Research Network was setup by AVCC and CSIRO. The Cuckoo's Egg written by Clifford Stoll tells the real life story of a German cracker who infiltrated numerous US facilities. Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pueto Rico U.K were part of this revolution.

1990 - A happy victim of it's own unplanned, unexpected success, the APRANET was decommissioned, leaving only the vast networks called InterNET. The number has grown to 300,000 hosts around the world. Archie was released by Peter Deutsch, Alan Emtage and Bill Heelan at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. CA*net was formed by ten regional networks as national Canadian backbone with direct connection to NSFNET

1991 - This year Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland posted the first computer code of the World Wide Web, the ability to combine words, pictures and sounds on the Web pages excited many computer programmers who see the potential for publishing information on the INterNET in a way that can be as easy as using a word processor. Marc Hendreesen and a group of student programmers at NCSA at the U of Illinois at Urbana Campaign eventually developed a browser called Mosaic. US High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) established the National Research & Education Network(NREN).NSFNET traffic passed 1 trillion bytes/month 10 billion packets/month

1992 - The first audio and video broadcast took place over a portion of the InterNET called the "MBONE". Veronica and gopher space search tool were released by U. of Nevada. The World Bank came Online.

1993 - InterNIC was created by NSF to provide specific Internet Services like directory and database services (AT&T), registrations services and Domain Names (Network Solutions Inc.) and Information services. Mosaic, the first Web browser, became available and the traffic on the InterNET expanded by 341,634% annual growth rate. Also, the First and Second families of the United States(Clinton/Gore) were online. InterNET Talk Radio began broadcasting over the InterNET. United Nations came Online

1994 - Shopping-Malls arrived on the InterNET and the first CyberBank open for business. The Rolling Stones broadcasted their Voodoo Lounge tour over the M-Bone. Marc Hendreesen and his friend ordered Pizza Hut with some pepperoni and extra cheese over the NET. Japan's Prime Minister came online.

1995 - NSFNET reverted back to a research project leaving the InterNET commercial Web now comprises the bulk of InterNET traffic. A team of programmers from Sun Microsystems released an InterNET programming language called Java which radically changed the way applications and information can be retrieved, displayed and used over the InterNET.

1996 - Users in almost 150 countries around the globe are connected to the InterNET and the number of computer hosts approaches 10 million.

1997 - All continents of the globe are connected with rapid progression to more than 235 countries.

1998 - More intensive Internet applications and programs sprung out from all four corners of the globe. The introduction of E-Commerce. Several small I-Radio (Internet Radios) came to life on the Internet.

1999 - Internet Online Users Around The Globe Canada & U.S.A 87 Million Europe 32.74 Million Asia/Pacific 24.33 Million South America 4.5 Million Africa 0.80 Million Middle East 0.78 Million

- January 2000 - AOL Merged with Time Warner with over 20 million subscribers

- February 2000 - Massive cyber attacks on major web sites like Yahoo.com, CNN.com

- April 2000 - Microsoft Accused By US Government Monopoly Issues

- April 2000 - Tetra Networks(UK) merged with Lycos (US)

- October 2001 - Bill Gates officially launched Windows XP from New York after the September 11, 2001 episode about the "World Trade Center"

- February 13th 2002 - Microsoft Officially Unveils the new .NET Framework For Internet Development

- June 2002 - WorldCom (formerly UUNET) reported a weak financial condition

- Over 4 billion dollars of accounting misappropriations.

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