History Of The Internet - Research By NiiCa
Some Cyber scholars claim The InterNET must have it's origin from 1957 after the
then USSR(Soviet Union) launched their first artificial earth satellite
called "Sputnik". The USA(United States) in response, formed the
Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA) within the US Department
Of Defense(DoD) to establish a comparable lead in science and technology both usable
and applicable to the US military.
Other Cyber scholars also claim that The InterNET began at the height of the cold
war in the very early 1960's. The question that lead to the birth of the InterNET
was "How could US authorities talk to each other in case of a nuclear attack by
the Soviets?" This question lead the US military think tanks, American people, businesses
and Corporations to figure out a common solution to this question. In the early
1960's the network configuration was a Point-To-Point protocol like a Ring Network
where the computers are connected in series with the computer ahead depending on
the one behind therefore if one node(computer) on the network breaks down, all nodes
connected to the network will be affected. Because of this problem with networks
of the 1960's, one of the think tanks on the project called Paul Baran conceived
the idea of a new kind of network technology; a network called Packet-switching(PS)
network, a network like a spider's web. A network protocol that could allow information
to find its own path to share information throughout the network if one or more
nodes break down. Paul Baran's Cold War vision later became the brain behind the
creation of a small network(Wide Area Network - WAN) connecting computers at four
university campuses around the United States which grew up to be the Super Information
Highway with millions of nodes on millions of networks around the globe.
Chronological Growth Of The InterNET - (also known as "the web")
1962 - Paul Baran from RAND Corporation began research into Distributed
Communications Networks for US military command and control posts. Introduction
of Packet-Switching (PS) Networks with no single outage point.
1965 -Advanced Research Projects Agency sponsored the study and
research into "Co-operative Network Of Time-Sharing Computers". TX-2 at MIT Lincoln
Lab and Q-32 at System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif. were directly
linked without Packet Switches.
1967 - Delegates gathered at a symposium for the Association For
Computing Machinery in Galinberg, Tennessee, USA to discuss the first plans for
ARPANET and Network Operating Principles. Plans were also presented for a Packet-Switching
Network. The National Physical Laboratory(NPL) in Middlesex, England developed the
NPL Data Network under D. W. Davies.
1968 - Packet Switching Network was presented to the Advanced Research
1969 - APRANET commissioned the US Department Of Defense to research
into Networking. Researchers at four US University campuses created the first hosts
of the ARPANET, connecting the first node at UCLA's Network Measurements Center
- code named [SDS SIGMA 7:SEX] and soon after at [Legend=Function - system:os] followed
by Stanford Research Institute (SRI) [NIC - SDS940/Genie], then UC Santa Barbara
[Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics] - IBM 360/75:OS/MVT and then University Of
Utah [Graphics (Hidden Line Removal)] - DEC PDP-10:Tenex]. Also the use of Information
Message Processors(IMP) - Honeywell 516 mini computer with 12 k of memory was developed
by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN). The First Request For Comment (RFC): "Host
Software by Steve Croker was also developed (one of the fundamentals of ISP programming
today). University of Michigan, Michigan State and Wayne States Universities established
X.25-based Merit Network for students, faculties and alumni
The APRANET was success from the very beginning. Although originally designed to
allow scientists and students to share data and Remote Access to Computers, e-Mail
quickly became and still is the most popular Network Application. The APRANET became
a high-speed digital Post Office as people used it to collaborate and discuss research
projects of various interests and topics. This extended to electronic conferencing.
1970 - ARPANET hosts started using Network Control Protocol(NCP)
and at University of Hawaii the ALOHNET was developed by Norman Abrahamson but got
connected to APRANET in 1972.
1971 - From 15 nodes the APRANET grew to 23 hosts connecting universities
and government resources and establishments across the United States, such as, UC
Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara, U of Utah, Bolt Beranek
and Newman, Inc. (BBN), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), RAND, SDC, Harvard,
Lincoln Laboratory, Stanford U, UIU(Ca), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames and the list goes
on...Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented the almighty e-Mail program to send messages
across a distributed network. The original program was derived from two others:
an Intra-Machine eMail program(SNDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program(CPYNET).
1972 - An International conference on Computer Communications with
demonstration by APRANET between fourty computers and the Terminal Interface Processor(TIP)
organized by Bob Khan where the Internetworking Working Group was created to establish
standards to govern the growing network. Vinton Cerf was elected the chairman of
the Internetworking Group(INWG) who was later named the "Father Of The InterNET".
At the same time Telnet specification(RFC 318) was established.
1973 - The APRANET went international with connections to University
College Of London(England) and Royal Radar Establishment of Norway. Bob Metcalfe
Ph.D. outlined his idea of Ethernet in his thesis at Harvard University. Vinton
Cerf sketched out a gateway architecture in March on the back of an envelop in a
hotel lobby in San Francisco. Cerf and Khan presented the basic InetNET ideas at
the InterNetWorking Group(INWG) at University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K. The File
Transfer specifications (RFC 454) was created.
1974 - The general public got its first vague hint about how networked
computers can be used in the commercial version after the APRANET goes online. The
ARPANET started to deviate from its original military/research roots and values.
Bolt, Beranek & Newman Inc.(BBN) opened Telnet the very first public/commercial
version of the APRANET Packet Switching service. Vinton Cerf and Bob Khan published
"A Protocol for Packet Networking Intercommunication" which specified in detail
the design of a Transmission Control Program(TCP).[IEEE Tans Comm]
1975 - Operational management of the InterNET was transferred to
DCA currently Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).
1976 - Queen Elizabeth II of the U.K. went online and sent her
first Royal eMail message. The oldest e-Mail dates as far back as 1971 found in
print, but was most submitted in 1976.
1977 - THEORYNET created by Larry Landweber at U of Wisconsin providing
electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science using locally developed
e-Mail system and TELENET for access to server. The mail specification (RFC 733)
was created. Tyshare also launched Tymnet and APRANET first demonstrated Packet/Radio
Net/SATNET operation of Internet Protocols with BBN supplied gateways.
1978 - [Nothing much has being recorded on the NET but NiiCa Labs.
is still researching.]
1979 - Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis at Duke University with friend
Steve Bellovin at U of North Carolina establish the first USENET newsgroups between
Duke U and U of NC. Users from all over the world joined in these discussion groups
to talk about the NET , politics, religion, and millions of other subjects and topics.
All original groups were under net.* hierarchy. Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment
starts with DARPA funding. Most communications took place between mobile vans using
APPANET connection via Stanford Research Institute.
1980 - [Nothing much has being recorded on the NET but NiiCa Labs.
is still researching.]
1981 - APRANET had 213 hosts and about one new host was added approximately
every 20 days. BITNET, the "Because It's Time NETWork" was started as a cooperative
network at the City University of New York, with the first connection to Yale University
that provided electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information as
well as file transfers. CSNET(Computer Science NETwork) built by a collaboration
of computer scientists and U. of Delaware, Perdue U, U of Wisconsin, RAND Corporation,
BBN through seed money granted by NSF to provide networking services (specially
email) to university scientist with no access to APRANET. SCNET later becomes known
as the Computer and Science Network. Minitel (Teletel) deployed across France by
1982 - Bob Khan and Vinton Cerf created TCP/IP, the common language
for all InterNET computers and was approved by the Department Of Defense as a suitable
standard. For the first time the loose connection of networks which made up the
APRANET was looked at as the "InterNET", and the InterNET as we know it today was
born. The mid-80's boom in the Personal Computer and super-minicomputer industries.
The combination of inexpensive desktop machines and powerful, network-ready servers
allows many companies to join the InterNET for the first time. Corporations began
to use the InterNET to communicate with each other and with their clients or customers.
EUNET (European UNIX Network) was created by EUUG to provide email and USENET services.
The Original connections between Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and U.K. The External
Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification was used for gateways between networks.
1983 -NCP was cutover to TCP/IP and Name Server developed by U
of Wisconsin no longer required to know the exact path to other systems. Desktop
workstations came into being, many with Berkeley UNIX which included TCP/IP networking
1984 - Domain Name Servers were introduced and about 1000 hosts.
JUNET(Japan Unix Network) was established using UUCP.JANET(Joint Academic Network)
was established in U.K. using Colour Books protocols.
1985 -The last Canadian university was connected to BITNET in an
effort to create a coast-to-coast connectivity.
1986 - Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio created
the first "FreeNET" Society for Public Access Computing. NSFNET created a backbone
speed of 56bps.Network News Transfer Protocol(NNTP) designed to enhance performance
over TCP/IP. Mail Exchanger(MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allowed nonIP
network hosts to have domain addresses.
1987 - The number of InterNET hosts had exceeded 10,000 hosts and
the "Request For Comments" reference guide was approved by APRANET. 1000 RFC.
1988 - The InterNET was an essential tools for communications,
however it also begins to create concern about privacy and security in the digital
world. News words such as "Hacker, Hacking" and "Electronic Break-In" were created.
These news worries were dramatically demonstrated on Nov. 1'st 1988 when a malicious
program called the "Internet Worm" temporarily disabled approximately 6,000 of the
60,000 InterNET host. The Computer Emergency Response Team was formed to address
security concerns raised by the "Internet Worm of '88". InterNET Relay Chat (IRC)
was developed by Jarkko Oikarinen from Finland. The first Canadian regional joined
NSFNET as well as countries like Denmark, Finland, Iceland Norway and Sweden.
1989 - RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeans) was formed by European Service
Provider to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow
the operation of the Pan-American IP Network. First relays between a commercial
electronic mail carrier and the InterNET: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the
National Research Initiative (CNRI) and CompuServe through Ohio State U. The AARNET
- Australian Academic Research Network was setup by AVCC and CSIRO. The Cuckoo's
Egg written by Clifford Stoll tells the real life story of a German cracker who
infiltrated numerous US facilities. Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Pueto Rico U.K were part of this revolution.
1990 - A happy victim of it's own unplanned, unexpected success,
the APRANET was decommissioned, leaving only the vast networks called InterNET.
The number has grown to 300,000 hosts around the world. Archie was released by Peter
Deutsch, Alan Emtage and Bill Heelan at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
CA*net was formed by ten regional networks as national Canadian backbone with direct
connection to NSFNET
1991 - This year Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland posted
the first computer code of the World Wide Web, the ability to combine words, pictures
and sounds on the Web pages excited many computer programmers who see the potential
for publishing information on the INterNET in a way that can be as easy as using
a word processor. Marc Hendreesen and a group of student programmers at NCSA at
the U of Illinois at Urbana Campaign eventually developed a browser called Mosaic.
US High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) established the National Research &
Education Network(NREN).NSFNET traffic passed 1 trillion bytes/month 10 billion
1992 - The first audio and video broadcast took place over a portion
of the InterNET called the "MBONE". Veronica and gopher space search tool were released
by U. of Nevada. The World Bank came Online.
1993 - InterNIC was created by NSF to provide specific Internet
Services like directory and database services (AT&T), registrations services
and Domain Names (Network Solutions Inc.) and Information services. Mosaic, the
first Web browser, became available and the traffic on the InterNET expanded by
341,634% annual growth rate. Also, the First and Second families of the United States(Clinton/Gore)
were online. InterNET Talk Radio began broadcasting over the InterNET. United Nations
1994 - Shopping-Malls arrived on the InterNET and the first CyberBank
open for business. The Rolling Stones broadcasted their Voodoo Lounge tour over
the M-Bone. Marc Hendreesen and his friend ordered Pizza Hut with some pepperoni
and extra cheese over the NET. Japan's Prime Minister came online.
1995 - NSFNET reverted back to a research project leaving the InterNET
commercial Web now comprises the bulk of InterNET traffic. A team of programmers
from Sun Microsystems released an InterNET programming language called Java which
radically changed the way applications and information can be retrieved, displayed
and used over the InterNET.
1996 - Users in almost 150 countries around the globe are connected
to the InterNET and the number of computer hosts approaches 10 million.
1997 - All continents of the globe are connected with rapid progression
to more than 235 countries.
1998 - More intensive Internet applications and programs sprung
out from all four corners of the globe. The introduction of E-Commerce. Several
small I-Radio (Internet Radios) came to life on the Internet.
1999 - Internet Online Users Around The Globe Canada & U.S.A
87 Million Europe 32.74 Million Asia/Pacific 24.33 Million South America 4.5 Million
Africa 0.80 Million Middle East 0.78 Million
- January 2000 - AOL Merged with Time Warner with over 20 million
- February 2000 - Massive cyber attacks on major web sites like
- April 2000 - Microsoft Accused By US Government Monopoly Issues
- April 2000 - Tetra Networks(UK) merged with Lycos (US)
- October 2001 - Bill Gates officially launched Windows XP from
New York after the September 11, 2001 episode about the "World Trade Center"
- February 13th 2002 - Microsoft Officially Unveils the new .NET
Framework For Internet Development
- June 2002 - WorldCom (formerly UUNET) reported a weak financial
- Over 4 billion dollars of accounting misappropriations.